Results tagged “Genomics”

The molecules of life, DNA, replicate with astounding precision, yet this process is not immune to mistakes and can lead to mutations. Using sophisticated computer modelling, a team of physicists and chemists at the University of Surrey have shown that such errors in copying can arise due to the strange rules of the quantum world.

A Cornell University study describes a breakthrough in the quest to improve photosynthesis in certain crops, a step toward adapting plants to rapid climate changes and increasing yields to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050.

Ocean water samples collected around the world have yielded a treasure trove of new data about RNA viruses, expanding ecological research possibilities and reshaping our understanding of how these small but significant submicroscopic particles evolved.

Engineers routinely design systems to be modular and symmetric in order to increase robustness to perturbations and to facilitate alterations at a later date. Biological structures also frequently exhibit modularity and symmetry, but the origin of such trends is much less well understood.

The search for alien life has been restricted to using life on Earth as the reference, essentially looking for "life as we know it" beyond Earth. For astrobiologists looking for life on other planets, there are simply no tools for predicting the features of "life as we don't know it."

The basic building blocks of RNA could have been delivered by carbon-rich meteorites, or produced in situ by processes beginning with the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the early Earth's atmosphere.

DNA In Archaeological Sediments

The analysis of ancient DNA preserved in sediments is an emerging technology allowing for the detection of the past presence of humans and other animals at archaeological sites.

The genetic code of all three kingdoms of life is universal and encodes the same 20 natural amino acids for a variety of complex physiological functions.

Tomonari Sumi, Associate Professor of Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Science, Okayama University, and Koji Harada, Associate Professor of Center for IT-Based Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, have developed a kinetic hypothesis governing the evolution of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) based on the simulation of the carbon metabolism of ancient evolutionary microorganisms, which are similar to the LUCA.

The GL4HS program is a 4-week intensive summer program hosted by NASA Ames Research Center and funded by NASA's Space Biology program.

Samples of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, an endospore-forming bacterial strain, were externally mounted on ISS in the EXPOSE facility and with full UV exposure.

On 22 May 2019, scientists from Queen's University boarded a modified Falcon 20 aircraft at Ottawa airport. Scheduled was a 'vomit comet' flight, where the plane repeatedly climbs to 8km in a steep parabola, alternating with a descent in freefall.

The emergence of eukaryotic cells is considered as a critical biological evolutionary event on Earth.

A team of scientists from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and from the Shandong Tianyu Museum of Nature (STM) has isolated exquisitely preserved cartilage cells in a 125-million-year-old dinosaur from Northeast China that contain nuclei with remnants of organic molecules and chromatin.

Researchers from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) have decoded the chromosomal-level genome of a deep-sea gutless tubeworm and the genome of its co-living "partner" - a kind of bacteria that provide nutrients they generate from inorganic compounds to the worm for the first time, explaining how the pair adapts to the extreme habitat.

Researchers have developed and successfully demonstrated a novel method for studying how cells repair damaged DNA in space. Sarah Stahl-Rommel of Genes in Space and colleagues present the new technique in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on June 30, 2021.

The presence of amino acids on the prebiotic Earth is widely accepted, either coming from endogenous chemical processes or being delivered by extraterrestrial material. On the other hand, plausibly prebiotic pathways to peptides often rely on different aqueous approaches where condensation of amino acids is thermodynamically unfavorable.

The genome of single-celled plankton, known as dinoflagellates, is organized in an incredibly strange and unusual way, according to new research. The findings lay the groundwork for further investigation into these important marine organisms and dramatically expand our picture of what a eukaryotic genome can look like.

Nagoya University scientists in Japan have demonstrated how DNA-like molecules could have come together as a precursor to the origins of life.

Chemists at Scripps Research have made a discovery that supports a surprising new view of how life originated on our planet.

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