Results tagged “genomics”

Perhaps as far back as the history of research and philosophy goes, people have attempted to unearth how life on earth came to be.

An international team of researchers has discovered a new group of Chlamydiae - Anoxychlamydiales - living under the ocean floor without oxygen.

"I'm fascinated with life, and that's why I want to break it." This is how Betül Kaçar, an assistant professor at the University of Arizona with appointments in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Astronomy and the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, describes her research.

NASA astronaut and Expedition 63 Commander Chris Cassidy works inside the International Space Station's Harmony module servicing microbial DNA samples for sequencing and identification.

One of the proposed scenarios for the origin of life is the primordial RNA world, which considers that RNA molecules were likely responsible for the storage of genetic information and the catalysis of biochemical reactions in primitive cells, before the advent of proteins and DNA.

Since mRNAs play a key role in protein synthesis in vivo, the use of mRNAs as medicines and for in vitro protein synthesis has been desired.

In a system with self-replicating molecules -previously shown to have the capability to grow, divide and evolve - chemists from the University of Groningen have now discovered catalytic capabilities that result in a basic metabolism.

In cells, protein is synthesized based on the genetic code. Each protein is coded by the triplet combination of chemicals called "nucleotides," and a continuous "reading" of any set of triplet codes will, after a multi-step process, result in the creation of a chain of amino acids, a protein.

A growing body of research links the ways that organisms react to their environment at a cellular level to a surprising variety of behaviors and physical changes. The mechanism is genetic, but it involves adding extra information to DNA rather than changing it. Scientists call this mechanism epigenetics, and it plays a role in changes that humans and other living things experience in space.

A team of Cambridge scientists working on the intersection between biology and computation has found that random gene activity helps patterns form during development of a model multicellular system.

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the first single-cell green algae data to be submitted to NASA GeneLab's Data Repository. Microalgae such as this convert light, water, & carbon dioxide into biomass under artificial light conditions, a necessity for space photosynthetic production.

A new tool that simultaneously compares 1.4 million genetic sequences can classify how species are related to each other at far larger scales than previously possible. Described today in Nature Biotechnology by researchers from the Centre for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona, the technology can reconstruct how life has evolved over hundreds of millions of years and makes important inroads for the ambition to understand the code of life for every living species on Earth.

The opportunistic pathogens Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia contaminans, both genomovars of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), are frequently cultured from the potable water system (PWS) of the International Space Station (ISS).

The abiotic synthesis of ribonucleotides is thought to have been an essential step towards the emergence of the RNA world.

The Lost City hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge supports dense microbial life on the lofty calcium carbonate chimney structures.

To study the swiftness of biology - the protein chemistry behind every life function - scientists need to see molecules changing and interacting in unimaginably rapid time increments - trillionths of a second or shorter.

Two pathways diverged in a chemical synthesis, and one molecule took them both. Chemists at the University of Tokyo have studied how molecular building blocks can either form a spherical cage or an ultrathin sheet that shows some of the basic properties of a "smart" material that can respond to its environment.

Biology encodes information in DNA and RNA, which are complex molecules finely tuned to their functions. But are they the only way to store hereditary molecular information?

Viruses are non-living creatures, consisting of genetic material encased in a protein coat. Once the virus infects a living organism, it can replicate itself and continue on.

Chloroplasts in photosynthetic eukaryotes originated from a cyanobacterial endosymbiosis far more than 1 billion years ago 1-3. Due to this ancientness, it remains unclear how this evolutionary process proceeded.

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