Results tagged “genomics”

Prebiotic Synthesis of RNA Nucleotides

RNA was probably the first informational molecule. Now chemists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have demonstrated that alternation of wet and dry conditions could have sufficed to drive the prebiotic synthesis of the RNA nucleosides found in all domains of life.

Chemists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have developed a fascinating new theory for how life on Earth may have begun. Their experiments, described today in the journal Nature Communications, demonstrate that key chemical reactions that support life today could have been carried out with ingredients likely present on the planet four billion years ago.

A new study finds that viruses share some genes exclusively with cells that are not their hosts.

Researchers at the University of York have shown that molecules brought to earth in meteorite strikes could potentially be converted into the building blocks of DNA.

Scientists have yet to understand and explain how life's informational molecules - proteins and DNA and RNA - arose from simpler chemicals when life on earth emerged some four billion years ago.

One of the most detailed genomic studies of any ecosystem to date has revealed an underground world of stunning microbial diversity, and added dozens of new branches to the tree of life.

Often described as the blueprint of life, DNA contains the instructions for making every living thing from a human to a house fly. But in recent decades, some researchers have been putting the letters of the genetic code to a different use: making tiny nanoscale computers.

Non-Standard Bonding in Base Pairs

A new study provides insight into base pair bonding in artificial DNA polymerase. Researchers focused on a previously unknown base pair: iso-guanine and methyl-pyrimidinone.

Earth's Viral Diversity

The number of microbes in, on, and around the planet - on the order of a nonillion, or 10^30 - is estimated to outnumber the stars in the Milky Way.

Recreating A Primordial RNA World

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have taken a big step toward the laboratory re-creation of the "RNA world," which is generally believed to have preceded modern life forms based on DNA and proteins.

The relatively recent development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques has revealed a wealth of novel sequences found in very low abundance: the rare biosphere.

A new study could explain why DNA and not RNA, its older chemical cousin, is the main repository of genetic information.

Researchers from the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) and Synthetic Genomics, Inc. (SGI) announced today the design and construction of the first minimal synthetic bacterial cell, JCVI-syn3.0.

NASA-funded researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology are tapping information found in the cells of all life on Earth, and using it to trace life's evolution.

Oldest Known Redox Gradient Discovered

By analyzing iron isotopes against the uranium content in the jasper rock from the ancient ocean of the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa, scientists have found a defined vertical redox gradient, called a redoxcline, showing a change in the level of oxygenation from the deeper part of the ocean leading to the shallower portion.

Tree of Life for 2.3 Million Species Released

A first draft of the "tree of life" for the roughly 2.3 million named species of animals, plants, fungi and microbes -- from platypuses to puffballs -- has been released.

Scientists have captured the first detailed microscopy images of ultra-small bacteria that are believed to be about as small as life can get.

Hydrogen peroxide -- commonly used as hair bleach -- may have provided the energy source for the development of life on Earth, two applied mathematicians have found.

Together with colleagues from Uppsala University in Sweden and the University of Vienna in Austria, Steffen Leth Jrgensen from the Centre for Geobiology at the University of Bergen (UiB) has published the article Complex Archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Nature, presenting the discovery of this new microbe.

Ideas about directing evolution of life forms on Earth and finding life on other planets are rapidly morphing from science-fiction fantasy into mainstream science, says David Lynn, a chemist at Emory University.

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